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Legally, few barriers to women's equal participation in the life of society remain.
However, socially they lack opportunities in the workforce due to the long work hours and dominance in the workplace by men.
Another strong stereotype about Japan is that women always stay in the home as housewives and that they do not participate in public life: in reality most women are employed – the employment rate of women (age 15–64) is 64.6% (data from OECD 2015 Women were given the right to vote in 1946.
This allowed them greater freedom, equality to men, and a higher status within Japanese society.
"Japanese women were historically treated like chattel; they were property to be bought and sold on a whim," Gordon said in 1999.
Modesty extended to the effective use of silence in both daily conversations and activities.
2) With regard to choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domicile, divorce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the family, laws shall be enacted from the standpoint of individual dignity and the essential equality of the sexes.
These include a family wage offered by corporations which subsidized health and housing subsidies, marriage bonuses and additional bonuses for each child; and pensions for wives who earn below certain incomes.Article 14 states, in part: "All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic or social relations because of creed, sex, social status or family origin".Article 24 includes: Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.Prior to World War II, women in Japan were denied the right to vote and other legal rights.
After the surrender of Imperial Japan in 1945, the Allied occupation, on the order of general Douglas Mac Arthur, began drafting a new constitution for Japan in February 1946.
Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.